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The Effects of Peer Tutoring on Student Achievment

The Effects of Peer Assisted Learning on Student Achievement in MathBeth CsiszerEDCI 635My SchoolHunter Street Elementary School is located in York, SC. It is a Title One SchoolIt houses PK-4th gradesIt currently has 662 students enrolled.The school is comprised of a population that is 52% male and 48% female.The school demographics are 1% Asian18% African American13% Hispanic4% Biracial64% White.01 % Unclassified

My School (Contd)53% Free Lunch3% Reduced Lunch44% Full pay

Graphic Representation of Data

Free and Reduced Lunch at Hunter Street4th Grade Demographics 54% Male and 46% Female0% Asian18% African American9% Hispanic6% Biracial68% White.007% Unclassified57% Free Lunch2% Reduced Lunch41% Full Paid Lunch

Graphical Representation of 4th Grade Demographics

4th Grade Demographics (Contd)My Classroom DemographicsMy Classroom consists of 50% females (10) and 50% Males (10)I have a total of 20 StudentsMy classs racial demographics are as follows:0 % Asian (0)70% White (15)20% African American (3)5% Biracial (1)5% Hispanic (1)

Graphical Depiction of the Demographics of My Classroom

My Classroom Demographics (contd)40% (8) of my students are on Free Lunch20% (4) of my students are on Reduced Lunch40% (8) of my students pay full price for their lunch

Students Who Qualify for Special Services5% (1) ELL Student25% (5) Resource Students25% (5) Gifted Students (MERIT)5% (1) Student who double qualifies as gifted and resource10% (2) Speech Students30% (6) who do not qualify for Special Services

Graphical Representation of Students Who Qualify for Special Services in My RoomMath MAP Data for Fall and WinterStudentFall ScoreWinter Score12112152193214321922642072225215219620520871801858210213918821110206213StudentFall ScoreWinter Score11214225122142111320020714192191151951891622022917202207182192211920520720213221Reading MAP Data for the Fall and WinterStudentFallWinter12052142202211322121342112265209222619220271791928218219919121010202202StudentFallWinter11216217122192271318220714195207151952081622022617185206182002041918919220197201DRA Levels for Fall StudentLevel1502403504505506287288509381040Student Level1138125013501434154016501750184019402038Math Grades for Quarter 1 and Quarter 2Student Quarter 1Quarter 2192932859139789498965859367870770718909397882108782Student Quarter 1Quarter 2119395129492138577147879158173169388177976189594198982208584My Students

My Students (Contd)

ProblemStudents who are successful in the lower grades begin to struggle sometimes in math as they get into higher elementary level grades.Why?Math problems are more complexWord problems require reading of problemsProblems are often multi-stepAcademic language becomes more complexPoor ability to transfer knowledge from reading to Math

Literature to Support My ProblemAccording to the article, Difficulties with Mathematics on the website hosted through PBS.org, Misunderstood Minds, students may exhibit poor math skills as they rise to older grades because they have :have computational weaknesseshave difficulty transferring knowledgehave difficulty understanding the language of Mathhave difficulty comprehending the visual and spatial aspects of mathhave language difficulties (as with ELL students)

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/misunderstoodminds/mathdiffs.htmlLiterature to Support My Problem (contd)In a 1997 study, it was found that American eighth graders performed approximately 2 years behind other students in mathematics (Fuchs, Fuchs, and Karns 2010). Therefore, it is important that we find ways to increase students mathematical achievement.

Literature to Support My Research Topic In a reading program, called PALS, a study was done by Kamps, Greenword, Arreaga,-Mayer, Veerkamp, Utley, Tapia, Bowman-Perrot, and Bannister (2008), to determine its effectiveness. The results were that there was a statistically significant gain in words read per minute and a decrease over all of words missed.There was a significant increase in test scores of weekly quizzes with the use of peer tutoring.

There was also significant support from a study by Golding, Facey-Shaw and Tennant (2006) to suggest that it increases students attitudes when in a peer tutoring environment. Literature to Support My Topic (contd)A study, by Mathes, Torgesen, Clancy-Menchetti, Santi Nicholas, Robinson and Grek (2010) shows that when using a peer tutoring program, there is virtually the same amount of gains in a students reading progress as there is when a student is in a small, teacher directed group.

Literature to Support My Research Topic (contd)A study that is on a larger scale than the one I intend to implement (Fuchs, Fuchs, Karns 2001) found peer tutoring to be effective in mathematics. The one problem that this study had was the fact that different teachers implemented different amounts of the programs given, thus the results were not 100% reliable. For that reason, I am conducting this study within one classroom under one teachers supervision. By all students receiving the same training and the same instruction, it will increase the validity of the study.

Action Research PlanWeek 1I will submit my IRB proposalI have already discussed my action research project with my administration. I will remind them that I am now beginning my action research to remind them I will send home letters to parents requesting permission for their children to be in my action research projectI will distribute Assent to Participate form to my class asking my students to participate in my project after explaining what we are doingI will give my pretests and train students in the peer tutoring processWeeks 2-5Students will participate in Peer Assisted Learning in Math on Tuesday, and Thursday for 20 minutes each day weekly.Students will be paired with a peer based on MAP scores. The student with the top Math MAP score will be paired with the 11th top MAP score. The 2nd top MAP score student will be paired with the 12th top MAP score student and so forth.

Week 2-5 ContinuedStudents will be given Math material to work on based on the what the lower student needs in the pair. The top student will teach the lower student how to do a problem. The lower student will then have a turn to teach. Finally, the higher student teaches the skill again. As skills are mastered in the pair, new material will be introduced.

Week 6I will give students the Post-TestIt is possible MAP data will be available. If so, I will collect MAP dataThird Quarter Grades in Math will be compared to those of quarters one and two

I will distribute and collect the attitude towards Math surveys to complete I will distribute and collect surveys about students attitudes towards group workCollect Qualitative DataCollect Quantitative DataWeek 6 (contd)I will analyze all of my data to determine if Peer Assisted Learning is effectiveI will complete the write up of my action research planI will share my findings with my team, as well as administration

Qualitative Data I Plan to CollectBefore students begin the Peer Assisted Learning Program, I will give them two qualitative data surveys.One will be about the students attitudes towards Math

The other survey will be about the students attitudes towards working with a partner during Math

Sample Questions for Attitudes Towards MathStudents will answer questions such as the following on a 3 point rating scale. (i.e. 3-Agree, 2-Unsure, 1-Disagree)I like math.I am good at mathMath is useful in everyday situationsEveryone can do math if they try hardMath is boringMath is hardIf I had the choice, I would never study math again

Sample Questions About Attitudes Towards Working with A PartnerStudents will rate the following statements on a 3 point scale (i.e. 3-agree, 2-unsure, 1- disagree)Working with a partner is helpfulI learn from a partnerI like working with a partnerI do not like being assigned a partner to work withI dont get much done when I work with a partnerIt is hard to get along with a partner

Quantitative Data I Plan To CollectI will give a pretest and a post test created on standards taught in 4th grade.

MAP data will be used as supplemental data if the Spring data is in on timeI will use students third quarter mathematics grades to determine if there is a change in students achievement

Sample Page of my Pretest/Post Test*Each standard will be tested at least onceIn the number 35624907, where should a decimal be placed in the above number to make the largest amount?a. between the 4 and the 9 b. between the 3 and the 5 c. between the 6 and the 2 d. between the 5 and the 6

15 +X=21The equation shown above is only true if the letter 'X' is equal to what number? a. 6 b. 5 c. 7 d. 4ReferencesCalhoun, M. B., Otaiba, S. A., Cihak, D., King, A., & Avalos, A. (2007). Effects of a peer-mediated program on reading skill acquisition for two-way bilingual first-grade classrooms. Learning Disability Quarterly, 30(summer), 169-184. Retrieved July 23, 2010, from the Educator Reference Complete database.Dineen, J., Clark, H., & Risley, T. (1977). Peer tutoring among elementary students educational benefits to the tutor. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10(2), 231-238. Retrieved July 23, 2010, from the JSTOR database.Fuchs, L., Fuchs, D., & Karns, K. (2001). Enhancing mathematical development: effects of peer-assisted learning strategies. The Elementary School Journal, 101(5), 495-510. Retrieved July 24, 2010, from the JSTOR database.Kamps, D., Greenwood, C., Arreaga-Mayer, C., Veerkamp, M. B., Utley, C., Tapia, Y., et al. (2008). The efficacy of class wide peer tutoring in middle schools. Education & Treatment of Children, 31(2), 119-156. Retrieved July 23, 2010, from the Educator Reference Com